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France passed its first anti-doping law in November 1964.Performance-enhancing drugs became illegal on 1 June 1965.I could have been anyone, and they could have done anything they liked with the bottles." During the 1979 Tour de France, the leader of the mountains classification Giovanni Battaglin tested positive for doping in stage 13.He was penalized by 10 minutes in the general classification, lost the points that he earned in stage 13 and received 10 penalty points in the mountains classification.Systematic blood doping at the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles. The transfusions were to increase red blood cells in riders' blood. They received the blood of others with similar blood types. Steve Hegg, won a gold and a silver; Rebecca Twigg, Pat Mc Donough and Leonard Nitz won silver medals.The practice, instigated by national coach Eddie Borysewicz, was not against Olympic rules although Games medical guidelines discouraged it. The others were John Beckman, Mark Whitehead and Brent Emery.In 1963, the Council of Europe gave a definition of doping."Doping means to make use of physiological substances in immoderate quantity or abnormal method from healthy people whose only aim is to obtain an artificial increase of the performance during the competition".

It is neither a 'list of shame' nor a list of illegality, as the first laws were not passed until 1965 and their implementation is an ongoing developing process.The American champion Marshall Taylor refused to continue a New York race, saying: "I cannot go on with safety, for there is a man chasing me around the ring with a knife in his hand." Warburton was banned from the sport after unproven claims of massive doping in the 1896 Bordeaux–Paris.His activities may have contributed to the early deaths of Arthur Linton, Tom Linton and Jimmy Michael.A study of 15 Swedish athletes by the Stockholm Institute of Gymnastics and Sports found an improvement of nearly 10 percent in aerobic performance."Average" red blood cell volume of the population at sea level is about 45% red blood cells.

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